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Income Tax Act 2007 (c. 3)

(The document as of February, 2008)

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Further provisions relevant to the charge

780 Transactions, arrangements, sales and realisations relevant for Chapter

(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, account is to be taken of any method, however indirect, by which--

(a) any property or right is transferred or transmitted, or

(b) the value of any property or right is enhanced or diminished.

(2) Accordingly--

(a) the occasion of the transfer or transmission of any property or right however indirect, and

(b) the occasion when the value of any property or right is enhanced,

may be an occasion when tax is charged under this Chapter.

(3) Subsections (1) and (2) apply in particular--

(a) to sales, contracts and other transactions made otherwise than for full consideration or for more than full consideration,

(b) to any method by which any property or right, or the control of any property or right, is transferred or transmitted by assigning--

(i) share capital or other rights in a company,

(ii) rights in a partnership, or

(iii) an interest in settled property,

(c) to the creation of an option and the giving of consideration for granting it,

(d) to the creation of a requirement for consent and the giving of consideration for granting it,

(e) to the creation of an embargo affecting the disposition of any property or right and the giving of consideration for releasing it, and

(f) to the disposal of any property or right on the winding up, dissolution or termination of a company, partnership or trust.

781 Tracing value

(1) This section applies if it is necessary to determine the extent to which the value of any property or right is derived from any other property or right for the purposes of this Chapter.

(2) Value may be traced through any number of companies, partnerships and trusts.

(3) The property held by a company, partnership or trust must be attributed to the shareholders, partners or beneficiaries at each stage in such manner as is appropriate in the circumstances.

782 Meaning of "other person"

(1) For the purposes of this Chapter references to other persons are to be read in accordance with subsections (2) to (4).

(2) A partnership or partners in a partnership may be regarded as a person or persons distinct from the individuals or other persons who are for the time being partners.

(3) The trustees of settled property may be regarded as persons distinct from the individuals or other persons who are for the time being trustees.

(4) Personal representatives may be regarded as persons distinct from the individuals or other persons who are for the time being personal representatives.

783 Valuations and apportionments

(1) All such valuations are to be made as are appropriate to give effect to this Chapter.

(2) For the purposes of this Chapter, any expenditure, receipt, consideration or other amount may be apportioned by such method as is just and reasonable in the circumstances.



Exemption for sales of going concerns

784 Exemption for sales of going concerns

(1) This section applies if a capital amount is obtained from the disposal--

(a) of assets (including any goodwill) of a profession or vocation,

(b) of a share in a partnership which is carrying on a profession or vocation, or

(c) of shares in a company.

(2) An individual is not liable to income tax under this Chapter in respect of the capital amount so far as the going concern condition is met (see subsections (4) and (5)).

(3) Subsection (2) is subject to section 785 (restriction on exemption: sales of future earnings).

(4) In the case of a disposal within subsection (1)(a) or (b), the going concern condition is that the value of what is disposed of at the time of disposal is attributable to the value of the profession or vocation as a going concern.

(5) In the case of a disposal within subsection (1)(c), the going concern condition is that the value of what is disposed of at the time of disposal is attributable to the value of the company's business as a going concern.

(6) In subsection (5) the reference to the company's business includes a reference to the business of any other company in which it holds shares directly or indirectly.

785 Restriction on exemption: sales of future earnings

(1) This section applies if the value as a going concern mentioned in section 784(4) or (5) is derived to a material extent from prospective income or receipts derived directly or indirectly from the individual's activities in the occupation.

(2) The exemption under section 784 applies to the value so derived only if the future earnings condition is met.

(3) The future earnings condition is met if, ignoring all capital amounts, the individual will receive full consideration for the prospective income or receipts, whether as a partner in a partnership or as an employee or otherwise.

(4) The references in subsections (1) and (3) to income or receipts include references to payments for any description of copyright, licence, franchise or other right deriving its value from the individual's activities (including past activities).



Recovery of tax

786 Recovery of tax where consideration receivable by person not assessed

(1) This section applies if a person ("A") is assessed to tax under this Chapter in respect of consideration receivable by another person ("B").

(2) Consideration is not regarded as having become receivable by B for this purpose until B can effectively enjoy or dispose of it.

(3) A is entitled to recover from B any part of the tax which A has paid.

(4) If any part of the tax remains unpaid at the end of the period of 6 months beginning with the date when it became due and payable, it is recoverable from B as if B were the person assessed.

(5) Subsection (4) does not affect the right to recover the tax from A.

(6) For the purposes of this section, any income which an individual is treated as having as a result of this Chapter (the "occupation income") is treated as the highest part of the individual's total income.

(7) But if in the tax year--

(a) more than one capital amount is treated as the individual's occupation income, or

(b) the individual is also treated as having income as a result of Chapter 3 (transactions in land),

only a just and reasonable proportion of each capital amount treated as occupation income is to be treated as the highest part of the individual's total income.

(8) See section 1012 for the relationship between--

(a) the rules in subsections (6) and (7), and

(b) other rules requiring particular income to be treated as the highest part of a person's total income.

787 Recovery of tax: certificates of tax paid etc

(1) For the purposes of section 786(3), an officer of Revenue and Customs must, if requested to do so, produce a certificate specifying--

(a) the amount of income in respect of which tax has been paid, and

(b) the amount of tax paid.

(2) The certificate is conclusive evidence of any facts stated in it.

(3) See also section 944 (under which directions may be given for payments within this Chapter to non-UK residents to be subject to a duty to deduct income tax).



Power to obtain information

788 Power to obtain information

(1) An officer of Revenue and Customs may by notice require any person to provide the officer within such period as the officer may direct with such particulars as the officer may reasonably require for the purposes of this Chapter.

(2) That period must be at least 30 days.

(3) The particulars which a person must provide under this section, if required to do so by such a notice, include particulars about--

(a) transactions or arrangements with respect to which the person is or was acting on behalf of others,

(b) transactions or arrangements which in the opinion of the officer should properly be investigated for the purposes of this Chapter, although in the person's opinion no liability to tax arises under this Chapter, and

(c) whether the person has taken or is taking any part and, if so, what part in transactions or arrangements of a description specified in the notice.

(4) Subsection (3) is subject to subsection (5).

(5) In relation to anything done by a solicitor on behalf of a client who does not consent to the provision of information required to be provided by a notice under subsection (1), the solicitor may not be compelled under this section to do more than--

(a) state that the solicitor was acting on behalf of a client, and

(b) give the name and address of the client.

(6) A solicitor is not treated as having taken part in a transaction or arrangement for the purposes of subsection (3)(c) merely because of giving professional advice to a client about it.



Interpretation

789 Minor definitions

In this Chapter--

  • "company" includes any body corporate, and

  • "share" includes stock.



Chapter 5 Avoidance involving trading losses

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Introduction

790 Overview of Chapter

(1) This Chapter imposes charges to income tax on--

(a) individuals who are treated as receiving income under section 792 (individuals in partnership claiming excess relief),

(b) individuals who are treated as receiving income under section 797 (individuals claiming relief for film-related trading losses), and

(c) individuals who are treated as receiving income under section 805 (individuals in partnership claiming relief for licence-related trading losses).

(2) The charges apply if (among other things) the individual makes a loss in a trade for which the individual claims sideways relief or capital gains relief.

(3) For the purposes of this Chapter sideways relief is--

(a) trade loss relief against general income (see sections 64 to 70), or

(b) early trade losses relief (see sections 72 to 74).

(4) For the purposes of this Chapter--

(a) capital gains relief is, in relation to a loss, the treatment of the loss as an allowable loss by virtue of section 261B of TCGA 1992 (use of trading loss as a CGT loss), and

(b) capital gains relief is claimed for a loss when a claim under that section is made in relation to the loss.

(5) References in this Chapter to a firm are to be read in the same way as references to a firm in Part 9 of ITTOIA 2005 (which contains special provision about partnerships).



Individuals in partnership: recovery of excess relief

791 Charge to tax on income treated as received under section 792

(1) Income tax is charged on income treated as received by an individual under section 792.

(2) Tax is charged under this section on the amount of the income treated as received in the tax year.

(3) The person liable for any tax charged under this section is the individual treated as receiving the income.

792 Partners claiming excess sideways or capital gains relief

(1) This section applies if--

(a) an individual carrying on a trade ("the relevant trade") as a partner in a firm makes post-1 December 2004 losses in the relevant trade for which the individual claims relief within subsection (2),

(b) any of sections 104, 107 and 110 applies in relation to the relief (whether or not any of those sections restricts the amount of the relief), and

(c) after the individual makes the claim or claims, a chargeable event occurs.

(2) The relief within this subsection is--

(a) sideways relief but only if the whole or part of the relief is claimed against income of the individual apart from profits of the relevant trade, and

(b) capital gains relief.

(3) A chargeable event occurs whenever--

(a) the amount of the individual's contribution to the firm is reduced as a result of the application of regulations made under section 114, and

(b) that reduction in the individual's contribution to the firm immediately results in--

(i) the total amount of trade losses claimed (less any reclaimed relief) becoming greater than the contribution, or

(ii) an increase in the amount by which the total amount of trade losses claimed (less any reclaimed relief) exceeds the contribution.

(4) The individual is treated as receiving an amount of income every time a chargeable event occurs.

The income is treated as arising otherwise than as profits of a trade.

(5) The amount of the income is calculated in accordance with section 793.

(6) If--

(a) the firm is carrying on, or has carried on, more than one trade, and

(b) subsection (1)(a) and (b) applies in relation to losses made by the individual in one or more of those trades as a partner in the firm,

the firm's trades are taken together for the purpose of determining whether a chargeable event occurs at any time after a claim in relation to any of those losses has been made and, if one does occur, the amount of income treated as received by the individual at that time.

See section 794(6) for modifications giving effect to this.

(7) References in this section to an individual being a partner in a firm include a reference to an individual being a limited partner within the meaning of section 106 as a result of subsection (1)(c) of that section.

(8) And, accordingly, in the case of an individual who is such a limited partner, in this section and in sections 793 to 795 references to the individual's firm are references to the relationship between the individual and the other persons mentioned in section 106(3)(a).

793 Calculating the amount of income treated as received

(1) The amount of income treated as received by the individual under section 792 when the chargeable event occurs is the lowest of amounts A to C.

(2) Amount A is the amount by which the individual's contribution to the firm is reduced as a result of the application of regulations made under section 114.

(3) Amount B is the amount given by--

(a) taking, at the time immediately after the chargeable event occurs, the total amount of trade losses claimed that are post-1 December 2004 losses, and

(b) reducing that amount (but not below nil) by any reclaimed relief.

(4) Amount C is the amount given by--

(a) taking the amount by which, at the time immediately after the chargeable event occurs, the total amount of trade losses claimed exceeds the individual's contribution to the firm, and

(b) reducing that amount (but not below nil) by any reclaimed relief.

794 Meaning of "the total amount of trade losses claimed" etc

(1) In sections 792 and 793 "the total amount of trade losses claimed" means the total amount of losses within subsection (2) for which the individual has claimed sideways relief or capital gains relief.

(2) The losses within this subsection are losses made by the individual in the relevant trade--

(a) in a tax year at a time during which the individual carries on the relevant trade as a limited partner or as a member of an LLP, or

(b) in an early tax year during which the individual carries on the relevant trade as a non-active partner.

Expressions used in this subsection are to be read as if contained in Chapter 3 of Part 4.

(3) In sections 792 and 793 "reclaimed relief" means the total amount of income treated as received by the individual under section 792 as a result of that section being previously applied in relation to claims for relief for losses made by the individual in the relevant trade.

(4) In sections 792 and 793 "the individual's contribution to the firm" at any time means the individual's contribution to the firm or the LLP (as the case may be) at that time as calculated for the purposes of the relevant restriction provision.

(5) The "relevant restriction provision" means--

(a) whichever of sections 104, 107 and 110 applied as mentioned in section 792(1)(b), or

(b) if more than one of those sections applied as mentioned in section 792(1)(b), the section which so applied to the amount of relief which could be given for the loss most recently made by the individual in the relevant trade.

(6) In a case to which section 792(6) applies, for the purpose of determining the total amount of trade losses claimed, the amount of the reclaimed relief and the relevant restriction provision--

(a) apply subsections (1) and (2) in relation to each of the trades that the firm is carrying on, or has carried on, and then add the results together, and

(b) apply subsections (3) and (5)(b) as if references to the relevant trade were references to any of the trades that the firm is carrying on, or has carried on.

But if a trade is of the kind mentioned in section 110(8), do not apply subsection (2)(b) in relation to it.

795 Meaning of "post-1 December 2004 loss"

(1) For the purposes of sections 792 and 793 a "post-1 December 2004 loss" means--

(a) any loss made by an individual in a trade in a tax year the basis period for which begins on or after 2 December 2004, or

(b) the post-1 December 2004 part of any loss made by an individual in a trade in a tax year the basis period for which includes 2 December 2004 (but begins before that date).

(2) The "post-1 December 2004 part" of any loss made by an individual in a trade means the individual's share of any losses made by the relevant firm in the trade in the period--

(a) beginning with 2 December 2004, and

(b) ending with the end of the basis period for the tax year concerned.

(3) For this purpose "the relevant firm" means the firm in which the individual carried on the trade, and--

(a) the losses of that firm are calculated as if that period were one for which profits and losses had to be calculated for the purposes of section 849 of ITTOIA 2005 (calculation of firm's profits or losses), and

(b) the individual's share of the losses is determined in accordance with the individual's interest in the firm during that period.

(4) In this section "basis period", in relation to an individual with a notional trade, means the basis period for the notional trade (within the meaning of Part 9 of ITTOIA 2005).



Individuals claiming relief for film-related trading losses

796 Charge to tax on income treated as received under section 797

(1) Income tax is charged on income treated as received by an individual under section 797.

(2) Tax is charged under this section on the amount of the income treated as received in the tax year.

(3) The person liable for any tax charged under this section is the individual treated as receiving the income.

797 Individuals claiming sideways or capital gains relief for film-related losses

(1) This section applies if--

(a) an individual makes a film-related loss (see section 800) in a trade for which the individual claims sideways relief or capital gains relief (a "relevant claim"),

(b) there is a disposal of a right of the individual to profits arising from the trade (a "relevant disposal") (see section 799), and

(c) an exit event occurs.

(2) An exit event occurs whenever--

(a) the individual receives any non-taxable consideration (see section 798) for a relevant disposal, or

(b) an increase in the individual's claimed film-related losses (see section 800) or a decrease in the individual's capital contribution (see section 801) results in--

(i) those losses becoming greater than that contribution, or

(ii) an increase in the amount by which those losses exceed that contribution.

(3) The individual is treated as receiving an amount of income every time a chargeable event occurs.

The income is treated as arising otherwise than as profits of the trade.

(4) A chargeable event occurs whenever--

(a) the individual makes a relevant claim (if by that time a relevant disposal and an exit event have occurred),

(b) a relevant disposal occurs (if by that time an exit event has occurred and the individual has made a relevant claim), or

(c) an exit event occurs (if by that time a relevant disposal has occurred and the individual has made a relevant claim).

(5) The amount of income treated as received when a chargeable event occurs is equal to the sum of--

(a) the total amount or value of all non-taxable consideration received by the individual for relevant disposals, and

(b) the amount (if any) by which the individual's claimed film-related losses exceed the individual's capital contribution.

The calculation in this subsection is made immediately after the chargeable event occurs and is subject to section 803.

(6) For the purposes of this section it does not matter--

(a) if the individual (or anyone else) is still carrying on the trade when a chargeable event occurs, or

(b) if the individual receives both non-taxable and taxable consideration for a relevant disposal.

798 Meaning of "non-taxable consideration" etc

(1) This section applies for the purposes of section 797.

(2) Consideration is non-taxable if (apart from section 796) it is not chargeable to income tax.

(3) Non-taxable consideration from which a deduction within subsection (4) is made is treated as received free of the deduction.

(4) A deduction is within this subsection if it is in consideration of any person's agreeing to, or facilitating, any relevant disposal or exit event.

799 Meaning of "disposal of a right of the individual to profits" etc

(1) For the purposes of section 797 any reference to a disposal of a right of an individual to profits arising from a trade includes, in particular, any of events A to D.

(2) Event A is the disposal, giving up or loss by--

(a) the individual, or

(b) a firm in which the individual is a partner,

of a right arising from the trade to income (or any part of any income).

It does not matter if the right is disposed of, given up or lost as part of a larger disposal, giving up or loss.

(3) Event B is the disposal, giving up or loss of the individual's interest in a firm that carries on the trade (including the dissolution of the firm).

(4) Event C is a default in the payment of income to which--

(a) the individual, or

(b) a firm in which the individual is a partner,

has a right arising from the trade.

(5) Event D is a change in the individual's entitlement to any profits or losses arising from the trade the effect of which is that--

(a) the individual's share of any profits is reduced (including to nil), or

(b) the individual becomes entitled to a share, or a greater share, of any losses without becoming entitled to a corresponding share of profits.

(6) The changes covered by event D include cases where there is an agreement under which the individual is entitled--

(a) to a particular share of any profits or losses arising from the trade in a period (including a nil share), and

(b) to a different share of any such profits or losses in a succeeding period (including a nil share).

(7) In such cases the change in the individual's entitlement is treated for the purposes of section 797 as occurring at the beginning of the succeeding period.

800 Meaning of "film-related losses" etc

(1) This section applies for the purposes of sections 797, 801 and 802.

(2) A loss is a "film-related loss" if the calculation of profits or losses that it results from is made in accordance with any provision of Chapter 9 of Part 2 of ITTOIA 2005.

(3) "The individual's claimed film-related losses" means--

(a) the total amount of film-related losses made by the individual in the trade so far as they are losses for which the individual has made a relevant claim, less

(b) the amount of any relevant recovered relief.

(4) "The amount of any relevant recovered relief" means--

(a) amount A, or

(b) if less, amount B.

(5) Amount A is the total amount of income treated as received by the individual under section 792 (recovery of excess relief) as a result of the application of that section in relation to claims for relief for losses made by the individual in the trade.

(6) Amount B is the total amount of film-related losses within subsection (7) for which the individual has made a relevant claim.

(7) A loss is within this subsection if it is made by the individual in the trade--

(a) in a tax year at a time during which the individual carries on the trade as a member of an LLP or as a limited partner, or

(b) in an early tax year during which the individual carries on the trade as a non-active partner.

(8) Expressions used in subsection (7) are to be read as if contained in Chapter 3 of Part 4.

(9) Subsection (10) applies if--

(a) the individual has made a relevant claim for a film-related loss made in the trade as a partner in a firm, and

(b) the firm is carrying on, or has carried on, more than one trade.

(10) For the purpose of determining the individual's claimed film-related losses--

(a) apply subsection (3)(a) in relation to each of the trades and then add the results together,

(b) apply subsection (5) as if the reference to the trade were a reference to any of the trades, and

(c) apply subsections (6) and (7) in relation to each of the trades and then add the results together.

801 Meaning of "capital contribution"

(1) This section applies for the purposes of section 797.

(2) The individual's capital contribution is the amount which the individual has contributed to the trade as capital less so much of that amount (if any) as is within subsection (6).

This is subject to subsection (3).

(3) If the individual has made a relevant claim for a film-related loss made in the trade as a partner in a firm, the individual's capital contribution is the amount which the individual has contributed to the firm as capital less so much of that amount (if any) as is within subsection (6).

(4) In particular, the individual's share of any profits of the firm is to be included for the purposes of subsection (3) in the amount which the individual has contributed to the firm as capital so far as that share has been added to the firm's capital.

(5) In subsection (4) the reference to profits are to profits calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting practice (before any adjustment required or authorised by law in calculating profits for income tax purposes).

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