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Income Tax Act 2007 (c. 3)

(The document as of February, 2008)

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(5) In subsection (4) the reference to profits are to profits calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting practice (before any adjustment required or authorised by law in calculating profits for income tax purposes).

(6) An amount of capital is within this subsection if it is an amount which--

(a) the individual has previously drawn out or received back,

(b) the individual is entitled to draw out or receive back,

(c) another person has reimbursed to the individual, or

(d) the individual is entitled to require another person to reimburse to the individual.

(7) But if a chargeable event occurs, anything treated for the purposes of section 797(5)(a) as consideration received by the individual for a relevant disposal is not to be treated as capital within subsection (6) in calculating the individual's capital contribution for the purposes of section 797(5)(b).

(8) In this section--

(a) any reference to drawing out, receiving back or reimbursing an amount is to doing so directly or indirectly,

(b) any reference to drawing out or receiving back an amount does not include drawing out or receiving back an amount which, because of its being drawn out or received back, is chargeable to income tax as profits of a trade, and

(c) any reference to reimbursing an amount includes discharging or assuming all or part of a liability of the individual,

but the express provision made by paragraph (c) does not affect what counts as the receipt back or reimbursement of an amount.

(9) This section needs to be read with any regulations made under section 802 (specified amounts to be excluded in calculating a partner's capital contribution for the purposes of section 797).

802 Exclusion of amounts in calculating capital contribution by a partner

(1) This section applies if an individual makes a relevant claim for a film-related loss made by the individual in a trade as a partner in a firm.

(2) The Commissioners for Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs may by regulations provide that any amount of a specified description is to be excluded in calculating the individual's capital contribution for the purposes of section 797.

(3) "Specified" means specified in the regulations.

(4) The regulations may--

(a) make provision having retrospective effect,

(b) contain incidental, supplemental, consequential and transitional provision and savings, and

(c) make different provision for different cases or purposes.

(5) The provision which may be made as a result of subsection (4)(b) includes provision amending or repealing any provision of an Act passed before FA 2005.

(6) No regulations may be made under this section unless a draft of them has been laid before and approved by a resolution of the House of Commons.

803 Prohibition against double counting

(1) Subsections (2) and (3) apply for the purpose of calculating the amount of income received under section 797 on a chargeable event in respect of the individual and the trade.

(2) If chargeable events have previously occurred in respect of the individual and the trade, any consideration taken into account in calculating the amount of income received on an earlier chargeable event is left out of account.

(3) If chargeable events have previously occurred in respect of the individual and the trade, the amount of income received as a result of section 797(5)(b) is reduced (but not below nil) by the total amount of income received on earlier chargeable events as a result of that provision.

(4) In a case to which section 800(10) (cases in which firm is carrying on, or has carried on, more than one trade) applies--

(a) subsections (2) and (3) of this section have effect as if references to the trade were references to any of the firm's trades, and

(b) if chargeable events in respect of the individual and any of the firm's trades occur at the same time, to find the total amount of income received under section 797 at that time on those chargeable events--

(i) calculate separately the income received on each chargeable event ignoring the other chargeable events,

(ii) add the results from sub-paragraph (i) together, and

(iii) reduce the total amount of income resulting from sub-paragraph (ii) so far as necessary to ensure that no amount is included more than once in that total.



Individuals in partnership claiming relief for licence-related trading losses

804 Charge to tax on income treated as received under section 805

(1) Income tax is charged on income treated as received by an individual under section 805.

(2) Tax is charged under this section on the amount of the income treated as received in the tax year.

(3) The person liable for any tax charged under this section is the individual treated as receiving the income.

805 Partners claiming relief for licence-related trading losses

(1) This section applies if--

(a) an individual carries on a trade as a non-active partner during an early tax year,

(b) the individual makes a loss in the trade in that tax year for which the individual claims sideways relief or capital gains relief (a "relevant claim"),

(c) the loss derives to any extent from expenditure incurred in the trade in exploiting a licence acquired in carrying on the trade, and

(d) there is a relevant disposal of the licence.

(2) For the purposes of this section and section 806 there is a relevant disposal of the licence whenever the individual receives non-taxable consideration for--

(a) a disposal of the licence, or

(b) a disposal of a right to income under an agreement related to or containing the licence.

(3) If one or more chargeable events occur in any tax year, the individual is treated as receiving an amount of income in the tax year.

The income is treated as arising otherwise than as profits of the trade.

(4) For the purposes of this section and section 806 a chargeable event occurs whenever--

(a) there is a relevant disposal of the licence (if by that time the individual has made a relevant claim), or

(b) the individual makes a relevant claim (if by that time there has been a relevant disposal of the licence).

(5) For the purposes of this section and section 806 consideration is non-taxable if--

(a) (apart from section 804) it is not chargeable to income tax, and

(b) its receipt is not an exit event for the purposes of section 797.

(6) For the purposes of this section and section 806 it does not matter--

(a) if the individual (or anyone else) is still carrying on the trade when a chargeable event occurs,

(b) if the individual receives both non-taxable and taxable consideration for a relevant disposal of the licence, or

(c) if a relevant disposal of the licence is part of a larger disposal.

806 Calculation of amount of income treated as received by the individual

The amount of income treated under section 805 as received by the individual in the tax year is calculated by taking the following steps.

Step 1

Calculate, at the end of the tax year, the total amount of the claimed losses (so far as relating to the licence) made by the individual in the trade in any early tax year during which the individual carried on the trade as a non-active partner.

Step 2

Calculate, at the end of the tax year, the total amount of the profits (so far as relating to the licence) made by the individual in the trade in any tax year.

Step 3

Deduct the total calculated at Step 2 from the total calculated at Step 1.

The result is "the net licence-related loss".

If the net licence-related loss is nil or a negative figure--

(a)

the income treated as received in the tax year is nil, and

(b)

ignore Steps 4 and 5.

Step 4

Calculate, at the end of the tax year, the total amount or value of all non-taxable consideration received by the individual for relevant disposals (including consideration received in previous tax years).

Step 5

Deduct from--

(a)

the net licence-related loss, or

(b)

if less, the total calculated at Step 4,

the total amount of all income treated under section 805 as received by the individual in previous tax years as a result of chargeable events.

The result is the amount of the income treated as received in the tax year.

(If the result is a negative figure, the income is nil.)

807 Supplementary provision relating to calculation in section 806

(1) This section applies for the purposes of section 806.

(2) For the purposes of Step 1, the amount of a loss made in a tax year that relates to the licence is so much of the loss in the tax year as derives from expenditure incurred in the trade in exploiting the licence.

(3) The amount of the loss that derives from such expenditure is determined on a just and reasonable basis.

(4) For the purposes of Step 1, a loss is a claimed loss if the individual has claimed sideways relief or capital gains relief for the loss.

(5) For the purposes of Step 2, the amount of profits made in a tax year that relates to the licence is so much of the individual's profits from the trade in the tax year as derives from income arising from an agreement related to or containing the licence.

(6) The amount of the profits that derives from such income is determined on a just and reasonable basis.

808 Meaning of "disposal of the licence" etc

(1) For the purposes of section 805 any reference to--

(a) a disposal of a licence acquired in carrying on a trade, or

(b) a disposal of a right to income under an agreement related to or containing a licence acquired in carrying on a trade ("a licence-related agreement"),

includes, in particular, any of events A to E.

(2) Event A is the revocation of the licence.

(3) Event B is the disposal, giving up or loss of--

(a) a right under the licence, or

(b) a right to income (or any part of any income) under a licence-related agreement,

by the individual or by a firm in which the individual is a partner.

It does not matter if the right is disposed of, given up or lost as part of a larger disposal, giving up or loss.

(4) Event C is the disposal, giving up or loss of the individual's interest in a firm that has the licence or a right to income under a licence-related agreement (including the dissolution of the firm).

(5) Event D is a default in the payment of income to which--

(a) the individual, or

(b) a firm in which the individual is a partner,

has a right under a licence-related agreement.

(6) Event E is a change in the individual's entitlement to any profits or losses relating to the licence the effect of which is that--

(a) the individual's share of any profits is reduced (including to nil), or

(b) the individual becomes entitled to a share, or a greater share, of any losses without becoming entitled to a corresponding share of profits.

(7) The changes covered by event E include cases where there is an agreement under which the individual is entitled--

(a) to a particular share of any profits or losses relating to the licence in a period (including a nil share), and

(b) to a different share of any such profits or losses in a succeeding period (including a nil share).

(8) In such cases the change in the individual's entitlement is treated for the purposes of section 805 as occurring at the beginning of the succeeding period.

(9) For the purposes of this section--

(a) references to any profits relating to the licence are to any profits deriving to any extent from income to which the individual has a right under a licence-related agreement, and

(b) references to any losses relating to the licence are to losses deriving to any extent from expenditure incurred in exploiting the licence.

809 Other definitions

(1) References in sections 805 and 806 to an individual carrying on a trade as a non-active partner in an early tax year are to be read as if those sections were contained in Chapter 3 of Part 4 (see, in particular, section 112).

(2) But for that purpose, section 112(1)(b) (which contains a requirement that the individual does not carry on the trade as a limited partner at any time during the tax year) is treated as if it were omitted.

(3) For the purposes of sections 805 to 808 an agreement is related to a licence if the agreement and licence are entered into under the same arrangement (regardless of when the agreement or licence is entered into).

(4) For the purposes of sections 805 to 808 an agreement, or part of an agreement, is not prevented from being a licence merely because it imposes an obligation to do a thing (rather than merely gives authority to do it).

References to exploiting a licence are to be read in that light.



Part 14 Income tax liability: miscellaneous rules

Chapter 1 Limits on liability to income tax of non-UK residents

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Introduction

810 Overview of Chapter

(1) This Chapter provides for limits on the liability to income tax of non-UK residents.

(2) See sections 811 to 814 in the cases of--

(a) a non-UK resident, other than a company, and

(b) a non-UK resident company liable as a trustee.

(3) See sections 815 and 816 in the case of a non-UK resident company which is liable otherwise than as a trustee.



Limit for non-UK resident individuals, trustees etc

811 Limit on liability to income tax of non-UK residents

(1) This section applies to income tax to which--

(a) a non-UK resident, other than a company, is liable, or

(b) a non-UK resident company is liable as a trustee.

(2) Subsection (1) is subject to section 812 (case where limit not to apply).

(3) The non-UK resident's liability to income tax for a tax year is limited to the sum of amounts A and B.

(4) Amount A is the sum of--

(a) any sums representing income tax deducted from the non-UK resident's disregarded income for the tax year (see section 813),

(b) any sums representing income tax that are treated as deducted from or paid in respect of that income, and

(c) any tax credits in respect of that income.

(5) Amount B is the amount that, apart from this section, would be the non-UK resident's liability to income tax for the tax year, if the following were left out of account--

(a) the non-UK resident's disregarded income for the tax year, and

(b) any relief mentioned in subsection (6) to which the non-UK resident is entitled for the tax year as a result of--

(i) section 56(3) or 460(3) of this Act or section 278(2) of ICTA (residence etc of claimants), or

(ii) double taxation arrangements.

(6) The reliefs referred to in subsection (5) are--

(a) an allowance under Chapter 2 of Part 3 of this Act or section 257 or 265 of ICTA (personal allowance and blind person's allowance),

(b) a tax reduction under Chapter 3 of Part 3 of this Act or section 257A, 257AB, 257BA or 257BB of ICTA (tax reductions for married couples and civil partners),

(c) relief under section 457 or 458 of this Act (payments to trade unions and police organisations),

(d) a tax reduction under section 459 of this Act or section 273 of ICTA (payments for benefit of family members), and

(e) relief under section 266 of ICTA (life assurance premiums).

812 Case where limit not to apply

(1) Section 811 does not apply to income tax to which non-UK resident trustees are liable for a tax year, if there is a beneficiary of the trust who is--

(a) an individual who is ordinarily UK resident, or

(b) a UK resident company.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1) a person is a beneficiary of the trust if--

(a) the person is an actual or potential beneficiary of the trust, and

(b) condition A or B is met in relation to the person.

(3) Condition A is that the person is, or will or may become, entitled under the trust to receive some or all of any income under the trust.

(4) Condition B is that some or all of any income under the trust may be paid to or used for the benefit of the person in the exercise of a discretion conferred by the trust.

(5) The references in subsections (3) and (4) to any income under the trust include a reference to any capital under the trust so far as it represents amounts originally received by the trustees as income.

813 Meaning of "disregarded income"

(1) For the purposes of this Chapter income arising to a non-UK resident is "disregarded income" if it is--

(a) disregarded savings and investment income (see section 825),

(b) disregarded annual payments (see section 826),

(c) disregarded pension income,

(d) disregarded social security income,

(e) disregarded transaction income (see section 814), or

(f) income of such other description as the Treasury may by regulations designate for the purposes of this section.

(2) But income in relation to which the non-UK resident has a UK representative for the purposes of section 126 of, and Schedule 23 to, FA 1995 (UK representatives of non-UK residents) is not disregarded income.

(3) Income is "disregarded pension income" if it is chargeable under Part 9 of ITEPA 2003 (pension income) because any of the following provisions of that Act applies to it--

  • section 577 (UK social security pensions),

  • section 579A (pensions under registered pension schemes) (but see subsection (4) below),

  • section 609 (annuities for the benefit of dependants),

  • section 610 (annuities under non-registered occupational pension schemes), or

  • section 611 (annuities in recognition of another's services).

(4) Income chargeable under Part 9 of ITEPA 2003 because section 579A of that Act applies to it is disregarded pension income only if the registered pension scheme in question--

(a) falls within paragraph 1(1)(f) of Schedule 36 to FA 2004, and

(b) was, immediately before 6 April 2006, a retirement annuity contract to which section 605 of ITEPA 2003 applied.

(5) Income is "disregarded social security income" if--

(a) it is a taxable benefit listed in Table A in section 660 of ITEPA 2003, other than income support or jobseeker's allowance, and

(b) it is chargeable under Part 10 of that Act (social security income).

814 Meaning of "disregarded transaction income"

(1) Subsection (2) applies if a non-UK resident carries on (alone or in partnership) a business through a broker in the United Kingdom.

(2) Income is "disregarded transaction income", subject to subsection (6), if--

(a) it is transaction income, and

(b) the independent broker conditions are met in relation to the transaction in question.

(3) Subsection (4) applies if a non-UK resident carries on (alone or in partnership) a business through an investment manager in the United Kingdom.

(4) Income is "disregarded transaction income", subject to subsection (6), if--

(a) it is transaction income, and

(b) the independent investment manager conditions are met in relation to the transaction in question.

(5) In this Chapter "transaction income", in relation to a transaction carried out through a broker or investment manager in the United Kingdom on behalf of a non-UK resident, means income which arises to the non-UK resident from--

(a) so much of the non-UK resident's business carried on (alone or in partnership) through the broker or investment manager as relates to the transaction, or

(b) property or rights which, as a result of the transaction, are used by, or held by or for, the broker or investment manager on behalf of the non-UK resident.

(6) Income is not disregarded transaction income if it is chargeable to income tax in accordance with section 171(2) of FA 1993 (profits of the underwriting business of a member of Lloyd's).

(7) This section needs to be read with--

  • section 817 (the independent broker conditions),

  • sections 818 to 824 (the independent investment manager conditions),

  • section 827 (meaning of "investment manager" and "investment transaction"), and

  • section 828 (transactions through brokers and investment managers).



Limit for non-UK resident companies

815 Limit on liability to income tax of non-UK resident companies

(1) This section applies to income tax to which a non-UK resident company is liable, otherwise than as a trustee.

(2) The non-UK resident company's liability to income tax for a tax year is limited to the sum of amounts A and B.

(3) Amount A is the sum of--

(a) any amounts representing income tax deducted from the non-UK resident company's disregarded company income for the tax year,

(b) any amounts representing income tax that are treated as deducted from or paid in respect of that income, and

(c) any tax credits in respect of that income.

(4) Amount B is the amount that, apart from this section, would be the non-UK resident company's liability to income tax for the tax year if the non-UK resident company's disregarded company income for the tax year were left out of account.

816 Meaning of "disregarded company income"

(1) For the purposes of this Chapter income arising to a non-UK resident company is "disregarded company income" if it is--

(a) disregarded savings and investment income (see section 825),

(b) disregarded annual payments (see section 826),

(c) income arising from a transaction carried out on behalf of the non-UK resident company in the course of the company's trade through a broker in the United Kingdom, in relation to which the independent broker conditions are met,

(d) income arising from an investment transaction carried out on behalf of the non-UK resident company in the course of the company's trade through an investment manager in the United Kingdom, in relation to which the independent investment manager conditions are met, or

(e) income of such other description as the Treasury may by regulations designate for the purposes of this section.

(2) This section needs to be read with--

  • section 817 (the independent broker conditions),

  • sections 818 to 824 (the independent investment manager conditions),

  • section 827 (meaning of "investment manager" and "investment transaction"), and

  • section 828 (transactions through brokers and investment managers).



The independent broker conditions

817 The independent broker conditions

(1) The independent broker conditions are met in relation to a transaction carried out on behalf of a non-UK resident by a broker in the United Kingdom if--

(a) conditions A to D are met, if this section applies for the purposes of section 813, or

(b) conditions A to C and E are met, if this section applies for the purposes of section 816.

(2) Condition A is that at the time of the transaction the broker is carrying on the business of a broker.

(3) Condition B is that the transaction is carried out by the broker in the ordinary course of that business.

(4) Condition C is that the remuneration which the broker receives in respect of the transaction for the provision of the services of a broker to the non-UK resident is not less than is customary for that class of business.

(5) Condition D is that the broker does not fall for the purposes of section 126 of, and Schedule 23 to, FA 1995 to be treated as a UK representative of the non-UK resident in relation to any other income which is chargeable to income tax, or amounts which are chargeable to capital gains tax, for the same tax year as the transaction income.

(6) Condition E is that the broker does not fall to be treated as a permanent establishment of the non-UK resident company in relation to any other transaction of any kind carried out in the same accounting period of the non-UK resident company as the transaction in question.



The independent investment manager conditions

818 The independent investment manager conditions

(1) The independent investment manager conditions are met in relation to an investment transaction carried out on behalf of a non-UK resident by an investment manager in the United Kingdom if--

(a) conditions A to F are met, if this section applies for the purposes of section 813, or

(b) conditions A to E and G are met, if this section applies for the purposes of section 816.

(2) Condition A is that at the time of the transaction the investment manager is carrying on a business of providing investment management services.

(3) Condition B is that the transaction is carried out in the ordinary course of that business.

(4) Condition C is that, when the investment manager acts on behalf of the non-UK resident in relation to the transaction, the relationship between them, having regard to its legal, financial and commercial characteristics, is a relationship between persons carrying on independent businesses dealing with each other at arm's length.

(5) Condition D is that the requirements of the 20% rule are met (see section 819).

(6) Condition E is that the remuneration which the investment manager receives in respect of the transaction for the provision of investment management services to the non-UK resident is not less than is customary for that class of business.

(7) Condition F is that the investment manager does not fall for the purposes of section 126 of, and Schedule 23 to, FA 1995 to be treated as a UK representative of the non-UK resident in relation to any other income which is chargeable to income tax, or amounts which are chargeable to capital gains tax, for the same tax year as the transaction income.

(8) Condition G is that the investment manager does not fall to be treated as a permanent establishment of the non-UK resident company in relation to any other transaction of any kind carried out in the same accounting period of the non-UK resident company as the transaction in question.

819 Investment managers: the 20% rule

(1) The requirements of the 20% rule are met if conditions A and B are met.

(2) Condition A is that in relation to a qualifying period it has been or is the intention of the investment manager and the persons connected with the investment manager that at least 80% of the non-UK resident's relevant disregarded income should consist of amounts to which none of them has a beneficial entitlement.

(3) Condition B is that, so far as there is a failure to fulfil that intention, that failure--

(a) is attributable (directly or indirectly) to matters outside the control of the investment manager and persons connected with the investment manager, and

(b) does not result from a failure by any of them to take such steps as may be reasonable for mitigating the effect of those matters in relation to the fulfilment of that intention.

(4) This section needs to be read with--

  • section 820 (meaning of "qualifying period"),

  • section 821 (meaning of "relevant disregarded income"), and

  • section 822 (meaning of "beneficial entitlement").

820 Meaning of "qualifying period"

(1) This section applies for the purposes of this Chapter.

(2) If section 819 applies for the purposes of section 813, a "qualifying period" means--

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