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Criminal Justice Act 1993 (c. 36)

(The document as of February, 2008)

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Criminal Justice Act 1993 (c. 36)

1993 CHAPTER 36

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

Content
  1. PART I

    JURISDICTION

    1. 1. Offences to which this Part applies.

    2. 2. Jurisdiction in respect of Group A offences.

    3. 3. Questions immaterial to jurisdiction in the case of certain offences.

    4. 4. Rules for determining certain jurisdictional questions relating to the location of events.

    5. 5. Conspiracy, attempt and incitement.

    6. 6. Relevance of external law.

  2. PART II

    DRUG TRAFFICKING OFFENCES

    1. Confiscation orders

      1. 7. Confiscation orders.

      2. 8. Postponed determinations.

      3. 9. Assumptions about proceeds of drug trafficking.

      4. 10. Provision of information.

      5. 11. Variation of confiscation orders.

      6. 12. Revised assessment of proceeds of drug trafficking.

      7. 13. Availability of powers and satisfaction of orders.

    2. Death or absence of defendant

      1. 14. Defendant who has died or absconded.

      2. 15. Compensation.

    3. Offences

      1. 16. Acquisition, possession or use of proceeds of drug trafficking.

      2. 17. Acquisition, possession or use of proceeds of drug trafficking: Scotland.

      3. 18. Offences in connection with laundering money from drug trafficking.

      4. 19. Offences in connection with laundering money from drug trafficking: Scotland.

      5. 20. Prosecution by order of the Commissioners of Customs and Excise.

    4. Enforcement

      1. 21. Enforcement of certain orders.

      2. 22. Enforcement of Northern Ireland orders: drug trafficking.

      3. 23. Transfer of certain enforcement powers to the Commissioners of Customs and Excise.

    5. Miscellaneous

      1. 24. Miscellaneous amendments.

      2. 25. Appeal against order forfeiting drug trafficking cash.

      3. 26. Disclosure of information etc. received in privileged circumstances.

  3. PART III

    PROCEEDS OF CRIMINAL CONDUCT

    1. Confiscation orders

      1. 27. Confiscation orders.

      2. 28. Postponed determinations.

    2. Money laundering and other offences

      1. 29. Assisting another to retain the benefit of criminal conduct.

      2. 30. Acquisition, possession or use of proceeds of criminal conduct.

      3. 31. Concealing or transferring proceeds of criminal conduct.

      4. 32. Tipping-off.

      5. 33. Application to Scotland of sections 93A to 93D of 1988 Act.

      6. 34. Enforcement of Northern Ireland orders: proceeds of criminal conduct.

      7. 35. Prosecution by order of the Commissioners of Customs and Excise.

  4. PART IV

    FINANCING ETC. OF TERRORISM

    1. Amendments of the 1991 Act

      1. 36. Confiscation orders.

      2. 37. Revised assessments.

      3. 38. Statements, etc. relevant to making confiscation orders.

      4. 39. Provision of information.

      5. 40. Variation of confiscation orders.

      6. 41. Availability of powers and satisfaction of orders.

      7. 42. Defendant who has died or absconded.

      8. 43. Compensation.

      9. 44. Realisable property.

      10. 45. Enforcement.

      11. 46. Enforcement of orders outside Northern Ireland.

      12. 47. Offences relating to proceeds of terrorist-related activities.

      13. 48. Failure to disclose knowledge or suspicion relating to proceeds of terrorist-related activities.

    2. Amendments of the 1989 Act

      1. 49. Financial assistance for terrorism.

      2. 50. Investigation of terrorist activities.

      3. 51. Failure to disclose knowledge or suspicion of financial assistance for terrorism.

    3. PART V

    4. INSIDER DEALING

    5. The offence of insider dealing

      1. 52. The offence.

      2. 53. Defences.

    6. Interpretation

      1. 54. Securities to which Part V applies.

      2. 55. "Dealing" in securities.

      3. 56. "Inside information", etc.

      4. 57. "Insiders".

      5. 58. Information "made public".

      6. 59. "Professional intermediary".

      7. 60. Other interpretation provisions.

    7. Miscellaneous

      1. 61.. Penalties and prosecution.

      2. 62. Territorial scope of offence of insider dealing.

      3. 63. Limits on section 52.

      4. 64. Orders.

    8. PART VI

    9. MISCELLANEOUS

      1. 65. Fixing of fines.

      2. 66. Powers of courts to deal with offenders.

      3. 67. Penalty for causing death by dangerous driving or by careless driving.

      4. 68. Appeals in Scotland against lenient disposals, etc.

      5. 69. Supervised release of certain young offenders in Scotland.

      6. 70. Penalties under implementation regulations.

      7. 71. Offences in connection with taxation etc. in the EC.

      8. 72. Backing of warrants: safeguards.

      9. 73. Power of Secretary of State to make grants in relation to combating drug misuse.

      10. 74. Persons not eligible for early release.

      11. 75. Compassionate release of certain children and other persons in Scotland.

      12. 76. Life prisoners transferred to Scotland.

      13. 77. Power to extend certain offences to Crown servants and to exempt regulators etc.

  5. PART VII

    SUPPLEMENTARY

    1. 78. Commencement etc.

    2. 79. Short title, extent etc.

    1. Schedule 1

      Special defences.

    2. Schedule 2

      Securities.

    3. Schedule 3

      Financial penalties.

    4. Schedule 4

      Extensions and exemptions.

    5. Schedule 5

      Consequential Amendments.

      1. Part I

        Enactments.

      2. Part II

        Orders in Council under the Northern Ireland Act 1974.

    6. Schedule 6

      Repeals and Revocations.

      1. Part I

        Repeals.

      2. Part II

        Revocations.

An Act to make provision about the jurisdiction of courts in England and Wales in relation to certain offences of dishonesty and blackmail; to amend the law about drug trafficking offences and to implement provisions of the Community Council Directive No. 91/308/EEC; to amend Part VI of the Criminal Justice Act 1988; to make provision with respect to the financing of terrorism, the proceeds of terrorist-related activities and the investigation of terrorist activities; to amend Part I of the Criminal Justice Act 1991; to implement provisions of the Community Council Directive No. 89/592/EEC and to amend and restate the law about insider dealing in securities; to provide for certain offences created by the Banking Coordination (Second Council Directive) Regulations 1992 to be punishable in the same way as offences under sections 39, 40 and 41 of the Banking Act 1987 and to enable regulations implementing Article 15 of the Community Council Directive No. 89/646/EEC and Articles 3, 6 and 7 of the Community Council Directive No. 92/30/EEC to create offences punishable in that way; to make provision with respect to the penalty for causing death by dangerous driving or causing death by careless driving while under the influence of drink or drugs; to make it an offence to assist in or induce certain conduct which for the purposes of, or in connection with, the provisions of Community law is unlawful in another member State; to provide for the introduction of safeguards in connection with the return of persons under backing of warrants arrangements; to amend the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 and Part I of the Prisoners and Criminal Proceedings (Scotland) Act 1993; and for connected purposes.

[27th July 1993]

Be it enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:--



PART I JURISDICTION

1 Offences to which this Part applies

(1) This Part applies to two groups of offences--

(a) any offence mentioned in subsection (2) (a "Group A offence"); and

(b) any offence mentioned in subsection (3) (a "Group B offence").

(2) The Group A offences are--

(a) an offence under any of the following provisions of the [1968 c. 60.] Theft Act 1968--

section 1 (theft);

section 15 (obtaining property by deception);

section 16 (obtaining pecuniary advantage by deception);

section 17 (false accounting);

section 19 (false statements by company directors, etc.);

section 20(2) (procuring execution of valuable security by deception);

section 21 (blackmail);

section 22 (handling stolen goods);

(b) an offence under either of the following provisions of the [1978 c. 31.] Theft Act 1978--

section 1 (obtaining services by deception);

section 2 (avoiding liability by deception);

(c) an offence under any of the following provisions of the [1981 c. 45.] Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981--

section 1 (forgery);

section 2 (copying a false instrument);

section 3 (using a false instrument);

section 4 (using a copy of a false instrument);

section 5 (offences which relate to money orders, share certificates, passports, etc.);

(d) the common law offence of cheating in relation to the public revenue.

(3) The Group B offences are--

(a) conspiracy to commit a Group A offence;

(b) conspiracy to defraud;

(c) attempting to commit a Group A offence;

(d) incitement to commit a Group A offence.

(4) The Secretary of State may by order amend subsection (2) or (3) by adding or removing any offence.

(5) The power to make such an order shall be exercisable by statutory instrument.

(6) No order shall be made under subsection (4) unless a draft of it has been laid before and approved by a resolution of each House of Parliament.

2 Jurisdiction in respect of Group A offences

(1) For the purposes of this Part, "relevant event", in relation to any Group A offence, means any act or omission or other event (including any result of one or more acts or omissions) proof of which is required for conviction of the offence.

(2) For the purpose of determining whether or not a particular event is a relevant event in relation to a Group A offence, any question as to where it occurred is to be disregarded.

(3) A person may be guilty of a Group A offence if any of the events which are relevant events in relation to the offence occurred in England and Wales.

3 Questions immaterial to jurisdiction in the case of certain offences

(1) A person may be guilty of a Group A or Group B offence whether or not--

(a) he was a British citizen at any material time;

(b) he was in England and Wales at any such time.

(2) On a charge of conspiracy to commit a Group A offence, or on a charge of conspiracy to defraud in England and Wales, the defendant may be guilty of the offence whether or not--

(a) he became a party to the conspiracy in England and Wales;

(b) any act or omission or other event in relation to the conspiracy occurred in England and Wales.

(3) On a charge of attempting to commit a Group A offence, the defendant may be guilty of the offence whether or not--

(a) the attempt was made in England and Wales;

(b) it had an effect in England and Wales.

(4) Subsection (1)(a) does not apply where jurisdiction is given to try the offence in question by an enactment which makes provision by reference to the nationality of the person charged.

(5) Subsection (2) does not apply in relation to any charge under the [1977 c. 45.] Criminal Law Act 1977 brought by virtue of section 1A of that Act.

(6) Subsection (3) does not apply in relation to any charge under the [1981 c. 47.] Criminal Attempts Act 1981 brought by virtue of section 1A of that Act.

4 Rules for determining certain jurisdictional questions relating to the location of events

In relation to a Group A or Group B offence--

(a) there is an obtaining of property in England and Wales if the property is either despatched from or received at a place in England and Wales; and

(b) there is a communication in England and Wales of any information, instruction, request, demand or other matter if it is sent by any means--

(i) from a place in England and Wales to a place elsewhere; or

(ii) from a place elsewhere to a place in England and Wales.

5 Conspiracy, attempt and incitement

(1) The following section shall be inserted in the [1977 c. 45.] Criminal Law Act 1977, after section 1--

" 1A Extended jurisdiction over certain conspiracies

(1) This Part of this Act has effect in relation to an agreement which falls within this section as it has effect in relation to one which falls within section 1(1) above.

(2) An agreement falls within this section if--

(a) a party to it, or a party's agent, did anything in England and Wales in relation to it before its formation, or

(b) a party to it became a party in England and Wales (by joining it either in person or through an agent), or

(c) a party to it, or a party's agent, did or omitted anything in England and Wales in pursuance of it,

and the agreement would fall within section 1(1) above as an agreement relating to the commission of a Group A offence but for that offence, if committed in accordance with the parties' intentions, not being an offence triable in England and Wales.

(3) In subsection (2) above "Group A offence" has the same meaning as in Part I of the Criminal Justice Act 1993.

(4) Subsection (1) above is subject to the provisions of section 6 of the Act of 1993 (relevance of external law).

(5) An offence which is an offence of conspiracy, by virtue of this section, shall be treated for all purposes as an offence of conspiracy to commit the relevant Group A offence. " .

(2) The following section shall be inserted in the [1981 c. 47.] Criminal Attempts Act 1981, after section 1--

" 1A Extended jurisdiction in relation to certain attempts

(1) If this section applies to an act, what the person doing the act had in view shall be treated as an offence to which section 1(1) above applies.

(2) This section applies to an act if--

(a) it is done in England and Wales, and

(b) it would fall within section 1(1) above as more than merely preparatory to the commission of a Group A offence but for the fact that that offence, if completed, would not be an offence triable in England and Wales.

(3) In this section "Group A offence" has the same meaning as in Part 1 of the Criminal Justice Act 1993.

(4) Subsection (1) above is subject to the provisions of section 6 of the Act of 1993 (relevance of external law).

(5) Where a person does any act to which this section applies, the offence which he commits shall for all purposes be treated as the offence of attempting to commit the relevant Group A offence. " .

(3) A person may be guilty of conspiracy to defraud if--

(a) a party to the agreement constituting the conspiracy, or a party's agent, did anything in England and Wales in relation to the agreement before its formation, or

(b) a party to it became a party in England and Wales (by joining it either in person or through an agent), or

(c) a party to it, or a party's agent, did or omitted anything in England and Wales in pursuance of it,

and the conspiracy would be triable in England and Wales but for the fraud which the parties to it had in view not being intended to take place in England and Wales.

(4) A person may be guilty of incitement to commit a Group A offence if the incitement--

(a) takes place in England and Wales; and

(b) would be triable in England and Wales but for what the person charged had in view not being an offence triable in England and Wales.

(5) Subsections (3) and (4) are subject to section 6.

6 Relevance of external law

(1) A person is guilty of an offence triable by virtue of section 1A of the [1977 c. 45.] Criminal Law Act 1977, or by virtue of section 5(3), only if the pursuit of the agreed course of conduct would at some stage involve--

(a) an act or omission by one or more of the parties, or

(b) the happening of some other event,

constituting an offence under the law in force where the act, omission or other event was intended to take place.

(2) A person is guilty of an offence triable by virtue of section 1A of the [1981 c. 47.] Criminal Attempts Act 1981, or by virtue of section 5(4), only if what he had in view would involve the commission of an offence under the law in force where the whole or any part of it was intended to take place.

(3) Conduct punishable under the law in force in any place is an offence under that law for the purposes of this section, however it is described in that law.

(4) Subject to subsection (6), a condition specified in subsection (1) or (2) shall be taken to be satisfied unless, not later than rules of court may provide, the defence serve on the prosecution a notice--

(a) stating that, on the facts as alleged with respect to the relevant conduct, the condition is not in their opinion satisfied;

(b) showing their grounds for that opinion; and

(c) requiring the prosecution to show that it is satisfied.

(5) In subsection (4) "the relevant conduct" means--

(a) where the condition in subsection (1) is in question, the agreed course of conduct; and

(b) where the condition in subsection (2) is in question, what the defendant had in view.

(6) The court, if it thinks fit, may permit the defence to require the prosecution to show that the condition is satisfied without the prior service of a notice under subsection (4).

(7) In the Crown Court, the question whether the condition is satisfied shall be decided by the judge alone.

(8) The following paragraph shall be inserted in section 9(3) of the [1987 c. 38.] Criminal Justice Act 1987 (preparatory hearing in a case of serious fraud), before paragraph (b)--

" (aa) a question arising under section 6 of the Criminal Justice Act 1993 (relevance of external law to certain charges of conspiracy, attempt and incitement); " .



Part IIPART II DRUG TRAFFICKING OFFENCES

Confiscation orders

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7 Confiscation orders

(1) In section 1 of the [1986 c. 32.] Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 (confiscation orders), in subsection (1), for "the court" there shall be substituted " then--

(a) if the prosecutor asks it to proceed under this section, or

(b) if the court considers that, even though the prosecutor has not asked it to do so, it is appropriate for it to proceed under this section,

it " .

(2) After subsection (7) of that section there shall be inserted--

" (7A) The standard of proof required to determine any question arising under this Act as to--

(a) whether a person has benefited from drug trafficking, or

(b) the amount to be recovered in his case by virtue of this section,

shall be that applicable in civil proceedings. " .

(3) In subsection (3) of section 4 of the Act of 1986 (amount to be recovered under confiscation order), for the words from "the amount appearing" to the end there shall be substituted " --

(a) the amount appearing to the court to be the amount that might be so realised, or

(b) a nominal amount, where it appears to the court (on the information available to it at the time) that the amount that might be so realised is nil " .

8 Postponed determinations

The following section shall be inserted in the [1986 c. 32.] Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986, after section 1--

" 1A Postponed determinations

(1) Where the Crown Court is acting under section 1 of this Act but considers that it requires further information before--

(a) determining whether the defendant has benefited from drug trafficking, or

(b) determining the amount to be recovered in his case by virtue of section 1 of this Act,

it may, for the purpose of enabling that information to be obtained, postpone making the determination for such period as it may specify.

(2) More than one postponement may be made under subsection (1) above in relation to the same case.

(3) Unless it is satisfied that there are exceptional circumstances, the court shall not specify a period under subsection (1) above which--

(a) by itself, or

(b) where there have been one or more previous postponements under subsection (1) above or (4) below, when taken together with the earlier specified period or periods,

exceeds six months beginning with the date of conviction.

(4) Where the defendant appeals against his conviction, the court may, on that account--

(a) postpone making either or both of the determinations mentioned in subsection (1) above for such period as it may specify, or

(b) where it has already exercised its powers under this section to postpone, extend the specified period.

(5) A postponement or extension under subsection (1) or (4) above may be made--

(a) on application by the defendant or the prosecutor, or

(b) by the court of its own motion.

(6) Unless the court is satisfied that there are exceptional circumstances, any postponement or extension under subsection (4) above shall not exceed the period ending three months after the date on which the appeal is determined or otherwise disposed of.

(7) Where the court exercises its power under subsection (1) or (4) above, it may nevertheless proceed to sentence, or otherwise deal with, the defendant in respect of the relevant offence or any of the relevant offences.

(8) Where the court has so proceeded, section 1 of this Act shall have effect as if--

(a) in subsection (4), the words from "before sentencing" to "offences concerned" were omitted, and

(b) in subsection (5)(c), after "determining" there were inserted "in relation to any offence in respect of which he has not been sentenced or otherwise dealt with".

(9) In sentencing, or otherwise dealing with, the defendant in respect of the relevant offence or any of the relevant offences at any time during the specified period, the court shall not--

(a) impose any fine on him, or

(b) make any such order as is mentioned in section 1(5)(b)(ii) or (iii) of this Act.

(10) In this section--

(a) "the relevant offence" means the drug trafficking offence in respect of which the defendant appears (as mentioned in section 1(1) of this Act) before the court;

(b) references to an appeal include references to an application under section 111 of the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (statement of case by magistrates' court).

(11) In this section "the date of conviction" means--

(a) the date on which the defendant was convicted, or

(b) where he appeared to be sentenced in respect of more than one conviction, and those convictions were not all on the same date, the date of the latest of those convictions. " .

9 Assumptions about proceeds of drug trafficking

(1) Section 2 of the [1986 c. 32.] Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 (assessing proceeds of drug trafficking) shall be amended as follows.

(2) In subsection (2)--

(a) for "may" there shall be substituted "shall"; and

(b) for the words from "following" to the end there shall be substituted "required assumptions".

(3) After subsection (2), there shall be inserted--

" (2A) The court shall not make any required assumption if--

(a) that assumption is shown to be incorrect in the defendant's case, or

(b) the court is satisfied that there would be a serious risk of injustice in his case if the assumption were to be made.

(2B) Where the court does not apply one or more of the required assumptions it shall state its reasons. " .

(4) In subsection (3)--

(a) for "Those" there shall be substituted "The required"; and

(b) in paragraph (a)(i), for "him" there shall be substituted "the defendant".

10 Provision of information

(1) Section 3 of the [1986 c. 32.] Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 (statements relating to drug trafficking) shall be amended in accordance with subsections (2) to (4).

(2) For subsections (1) and (2), there shall be substituted--

" (1) Where the prosecutor asks the court to proceed under section 1 of this Act or applies to the court under section 4A, 5A, 5B or 5C of this Act he shall give the court, within such period as it may direct, a statement of matters which he considers relevant in connection with--

(a) determining whether the defendant has benefited from drug trafficking, or

(b) assessing the value of his proceeds of drug trafficking.

(1A) In this section such a statement is referred to as a " prosecutor's statement " .

(1B) Where the court proceeds under section 1 of this Act without the prosecutor having asked it to do so, it may require him to give it a prosecutor's statement, within such period as it may direct.

(1C) Where the prosecutor has given a prosecutor's statement--

(a) he may at any time give the court a further such statement, and

(b) the court may at any time require him to give it a further such statement, within such period as it may direct.

(1D) Where any prosecutor's statement has been given and the court is satisfied that a copy of the statement has been served on the defendant, it may require the defendant--

(a) to indicate to it, within such period as it may direct, the extent to which he accepts each allegation in the statement, and

(b) so far as he does not accept any such allegation, to give particulars of any matters on which he proposes to rely.

(1E) Where the court has given a direction under this section it may at any time vary it by giving a further direction.

(2) Where the defendant accepts to any extent any allegation in any prosecutor's statement, the court may, for the purposes of--

(a) determining whether the defendant has benefited from drug trafficking, or

(b) assessing the value of his proceeds of drug trafficking,

treat his acceptance as conclusive of the matters to which it relates. " .

(3) In subsection (3), for "statement" there shall be substituted "prosecutor's statement in question".

(4) For subsection (5) there shall be substituted--

" (5) An allegation may be accepted, or particulars of any matter may be given, for the purposes of this section in such manner as may be prescribed by rules of court or as the court may direct. " .

(5) The following section shall be inserted in the Act of 1986, after section 3--

" 3A Provision of information by defendant

(1) This section applies where--

(a) the prosecutor has asked the court to proceed under section 1 of this Act or has applied to the court under section 5A, 5B or 5C of this Act, or

(b) no such request has been made but the court is nevertheless proceeding, or considering whether to proceed, under section 1.

(2) For the purpose of obtaining information to assist it in carrying out its functions, the court may at any time order the defendant to give it such information as may be specified in the order.

(3) An order under subsection (2) above may require all, or any specified part, of the required information to be given to the court in such manner, and before such date, as may be specified in the order.

(4) Crown Court Rules may make provision as to the maximum or minimum period that may be allowed under subsection (3) above.

(5) If the defendant fails, without reasonable excuse, to comply with any order under this section, the court may draw such inference from that failure as it considers appropriate.

(6) Where the prosecutor accepts to any extent any allegation made by the defendant in giving to the court information required by an order under this section, the court may treat that acceptance as conclusive of the matters to which it relates.

(7) For the purposes of this section, an allegation may be accepted in such manner as may be prescribed by rules of court or as the court may direct. " .

(6) In section 5(3) of the Act of 1986 the words "sections 3 and 4 of" shall be omitted.

11 Variation of confiscation orders

(1) Section 14 of the [1986 c. 32.] Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 (variation of confiscation orders) shall be amended as follows.

(2) In subsection (1) (variation on application of defendant), after "defendant" there shall be inserted "or a receiver appointed under section 8 or 11 of this Act, or in pursuance of a charging order, made".

(3) In subsection (3), for "defendant" there shall be substituted "person who applied for it".

(4) The following shall be inserted at the end--

" (5) Rules of court may make provision--

(a) for the giving of notice of any application under this section; and

(b) for any person appearing to the court to be likely to be affected by any exercise of its powers under this section to be given an opportunity to make representations to the court. " .

12 Revised assessment of proceeds of drug trafficking

The following sections shall be inserted in the [1986 c. 32.] Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986, after section 5--

" 5A Reconsidera-tion of case where court has not proceeded under section 1

(1) This section applies where the defendant has appeared before the Crown Court to be sentenced in respect of one or more drug trafficking offences but the court has not proceeded under section 1 of this Act.

(2) If the prosecutor has evidence--

(a) which was not available to him when the defendant appeared to be sentenced (and accordingly was not considered by the court), but

(b) which the prosecutor believes would have led the court to determine that the defendant had benefited from drug trafficking if--

(i) the prosecutor had asked the court to proceed under section 1 of this Act, and

(ii) the evidence had been considered by the court,

Pages: P.1 | P.2 | P.3 | P.4 | P.5 | P.6 | P.7 | P.8 | P.9

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